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CULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND HUMAN-FACES IN ROCK ART OF SIBERIA AND FAR EAST (一)
2017-11-26 09:11:12 来源:中国北方岩画研究所 作者:E.G. DEVLET 【 】 浏览:1416次 评论:0


叶卡捷琳娜2005年.jpg


For many peoples venerated the rocks and cliffs, especially those which had attractive shape, ancient man-made images on them, or legends attached to them. Cliffs could be worshipped as embodiments of real ancestors, as symbolic substitutes for mythical forefathers or protectors of the tribal communities, as receptacles for the deities and various spirits, including spirits of ancestors and souls of living people. Particular landscapes were chosen for rock art activity and this activity even strengthened and maintained the importance of the place. Distribution of the rock art sites in the landscape gives us an opportunity to discuss an important subject matter: why particular places were chosen, why petroglyphs appeared at certain places and whether the places had been used through generations for a long period of time, whether it was necessary to travel long distances to make petroglyphs in a particular place or the choice was arbitrary and depended on the artist idiosyncrasy.

For the most of the rock art regions it is typical that core sites normally have satellite rock art locations. For example, for Tom’ River region the core site of Tomskaya Pisanitsa is accompanied by Tutalskaya, Novoromanovskaya, Visiachy Kamen sites located in the vicinity of the main place. For the Bolshaya Boyarskaya it would be true to mention it as a core site and its satellite locations – those of Malaya Boyarskaya and Novaya Boyarskaya. For particular region it was preference of explorations of a core site and its expansion to peripherals areas as it is at Onega Lake there rock art activity scattered from core panels to embrace new peninsulas and small islands at the Upper Yenisei Region main activity, spreaded from Mugur-Sargol to Aldi-Mozaga.

Observation of hierarchy and spatial correlation of the rock art site makes it essential to explain the reason why certain sites accumulate majority of rock art motifs usually with very special iconography and skills in their production. These are core sites which formed centre of the sacral landscape, from where it emerges and expands. With this core sites are connected other smaller satellite sites – of the almost the same time span of even those which emergence was inspired by earlier metaphors.

The crucial importance of the core sites of the provinces for understanding of the sacral landscape can’t be exaggerated and sites with carved masks (human-faces) are of especial importance.

Mugur-Sargol – is a core site at the Upper Yenisei rock art province. This Bronze Age sanctuary was a central one in the area, although Aldi-Mozaga rock art site as well as other numerous rock art sites formed sacral landscape of the area. At Mugur-Sargol there are a number of panels whereas the central one densely covered with petroglyphs demonstrates idea of a three-levelled Universe that was typical for shamanic world-view.  The whole panel is divided by fissures into three horizontal zones – the natural frames separating groups of petroglyphs with special meaning. Panel was intentionally considered as a mental landscape and particular cracks or natural relief deliberately used as a frames for rock panel and means to organize the Universe.

On its upper section, on the rock surface facing skywards, are hollow dots which recognisably symbolise celestial bodies, including the depiction of a constellation, presumably Orion. Probably the highest celestial sphere inhabited by the celestials themselves was depicted. At the top in a deep groove there was an image showing a woman in childbirth; per

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